文章摘要
聂子淇,周侃,潘启勇.煤矿常见隐蔽致灾因素及其探查技术分析[J].矿产勘查,2020,11(11):2573-2579
煤矿常见隐蔽致灾因素及其探查技术分析
Analysis on common hidden disaster factors in coal mines and its exploration techniques
投稿时间:2020-05-11  
DOI:
中文关键词: 煤矿  隐蔽致灾  灾害探查  物探  化探  钻探
英文关键词: coal mine, hidden disaster, disaster detection, geophysical technology, geochemical technology, drilling technology
基金项目:贵州省科技计划项目(编号:黔科合支撑〔2019〕2876号)、贵州省教育厅基金项目(编号:黔教合KY字[2019]054)和六盘水师范学院校级基金项目(编号:LPSSYzyzhggsd201801)联合资助。
作者单位
聂子淇 六盘水师范学院矿业与土木工程学院,贵州 六盘水 553004 
周侃 盘州市能源局,贵州 六盘水 553537 
潘启勇 盘州市能源局,贵州 六盘水 553537 
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中文摘要:
      煤矿隐蔽致灾因素是影响当前煤矿安全生产和生产效率的主要因素之一,查明影响煤矿安全生产的各种隐蔽致灾因素是煤矿地质工作的主要任务,也是保证煤矿安全生产的关键。通过对煤矿隐蔽致灾特点、灾害分布以及常用探查方法技术的分析,发现:煤矿隐蔽致灾因素具有极强的隐蔽性、时变性、突发性,但在宏观上具有一定的区域性和继承性,进行排查时必须全面收集区域致灾因素资料,综合考虑。采空区积水、底板突水、煤与瓦斯突出、顶板冒落、冲击地压是煤矿较为常见的五种致灾因素。其中,采空区积水主要发生在在掘进工作面,底板突水是由断裂构造引发,地质构造、煤层赋存条件、应力集中是煤与瓦斯突出常见致灾因素。支护系统不合理是顶板冒落事故的常见原因。岩性条件、地质构造、工作面“见方”和煤柱应力集中是煤矿冲击地压发生的常见原因。地面调查-物探先行-化探跟进-钻探验证-综合探测是煤矿隐蔽致灾因素的常见探查方法。其中调查主要用来定性和半定量判断,地面物探和井下物探是隐蔽致灾最常用的探查手段,前者主要在矿井建设过程中,后者主要为煤矿安全生产服务。化探和钻探主要用于对物探结果进行验证。
英文摘要:
      Coal mine hidden disaster factors are one of the main factors affecting the safety production and production efficiency of coal mines. Identifying various hidden disaster factors affecting coal mine safety production is the main task of coal mine geological work and the key to ensuring coal mine safety production. Through the analysis of the characteristics of concealed disasters, the distribution of disasters and the techniques of common exploration methods, it is found that the concealed and disaster-causing factors of coal mines are highly concealed, time-varying and sudden, but have certain regional and inheritance in macroscopic. when collecting the investigation, we must pay attention to the collection of regional disaster-causing factors and consider them comprehensively. Water in the goaf, water inrush from the floor, coal and gas outburst, roof caving, and impact ground pressure are five common disaster factors in coal mines. Among them, the water in the goaf mainly occurs in the heading face, and the water inrush from the floor is caused by the fault structure. The geological structure, the occurrence condition of the coal seam and the stress concentration are the common disaster factors leading to coal and gas outburst. Unreasonable support systems are a common cause of roof crashes. The lithological conditions, geological structure, working face “seeing square” and coal pillar stress concentration are common causes of coal mine impact ground pressure. Ground investigation-geophysical exploration-geochemical exploration-drilling verification-comprehensive detection is a common exploration method for hidden disasters in coal mines. The investigation is mainly used for qualitative and semi-quantitative judgments, and geochemical exploration and drilling are mainly used to verify the results of geophysical exploration. Ground geophysical exploration and Underground geophysical exploration are the most commonly used means of exploration for concealed disasters. The former is mainly in the process of mine construction, and the underground geophysical exploration is mainly for coal mine safety production services.
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